The goal of this research was to determine a daily zinc and manganese balance in the organism of sportswomen of different specializations during physical activity and the day after all seasons of the year. The observation was made on 24 students- sportswomen of high qualification. All the sportswomen were divided into 4 groups of equal age and physical development.
Group 1 consisted of sambo wrestlers, group 2 of basketball players, group 3 of sportswomen going to the fitness club, and group 4, a control group, of students not going in for sport. A daily balance was determined in autumn and summer on the day of physical muscular activity and the day after while eating at home for every sportswoman with the subsequent summing of the content of zinc and manganese received from food and excreted with faeces and urine. The concentration of the microelements was determined with the help of emission spectral analysis.
The examination of zinc balance showed that its content in food in autumn in the organisms of sportswomen of all specializations and students not going in for sport even exceeded a daily need of this biotic for those who did not go in for sport. But this quantity was not enough to compensate the loss of the mineral during physical activity. After 24 hours only a negative balance of zinc caused its deficiency in the organism in group 1 – 6.2 mg, in group 2 – 4.7 mg, and in group 3 – 4.1 mg. The day after the training the balance of zinc together with a dramatic decrease of its excretion with faeces and urine turned out to be positive for all the sportswomen. An average daily retention of zinc was in group 1 – 3.9, in group 2 – 4.3, and in group 3 – 3.9. For the students not going in for sport the balance of zinc was positive even if its content in food was reliably less than for sportswomen. Its retention in the organism was 2.6 mg per day on day 1, and 2.1 mg – on day 2. In summer the concentration of zinc in food for all the examined students was considerably lower than in autumn but it satisfied the recommended daily standards for those who did not go in for sport. During the same physical activity like in autumn the excretion of zinc from the organism reliably prevailed over its receipt with food: for sambo wrestlers it was 6.3 mg higher, for basketball players – 4.7 mg, and for the fitness club sportswomen – 7.2 mg per day. The day after the content of zinc in food was the same as on the day of training with a considerable retention of it in the organism of sportswomen of all specializations. In group 1 it was 4.4 mg, in group 2 – 4.1 mg, and in group 3 – 4.9 mg per day. It is not difficult to notice that in summer the loss of zinc on the day of training was not compensated on the day after either. For the students of the control group the balance of zinc like on the previous day was also negative with the deficiency equal to 2.3 mg per day. Nearly the same situation was for the balance of manganese.
In autumn and summer the content of manganese in food was nearly the same in all groups of sportswomen and it was in the limits of the physiological requirement of this biotic. During muscular exercise in autumn the loss of manganese with excrements exceeded its receipt with food: in group 1 it exceeded 1.2 mg, in group 2 – 0.9 mg, and in group 3 – 2 mg per day. The day after the balance of manganese was positive and the retention of it in the organism in group 1 was1.0 mg, in group 2 – 1.1 mg, and in group 3 – 1.6 mg per day. In summer on the day of training the deficiency of this biotic in group 1 was 0.7 mg, in group 2 – 1.3 mg, and in group 3 – 1.4 mg per day. And the day after training the balance of manganese was positive and the retention of it was lower than its loss being in group 1 – 0.4 mg, in group 2 – 1.1 mg, and in group 3 – 1 mg per day. In the control group of students the balance of manganese turned out to be positive in both cases. Its retention was 1.1 mg on day 1, and 0.4 mg per day on day 2.
When comparing the results of two balance researches one can notice that in spite of the positive balance of the microelements and the considerable retention of those in the organism of the sportswomen of all specializations the day after training the losses of the biotics with excrements on the day of training were not compensated during one day. In this connection special attention should be paid to the adequate content of these microelements in food using food items rich in zinc and manganese or vitamin-mineral complexes as additives to sportswomen’s food.