V.V. Perinsky, V.N. Lyasnikov
The basic tendencies of a progress of semi-conductor microwave-microelectronics are connected with the increase of an integration degree when creating electronic arrangements on the one crystal. Successes of such progress are illustrated by digital integrated circuits.
Alongside with them, semi-conductor arrangements of generation, strengthening and processing microwave signals (10 8-1011 Hz) have special value for space communication, defensive techniques, and other applications. Known semi-conductor circuits of this range are characterized by lower (102) integration level.
Manufacturing microwave integrated circuits and developing complicated monolithic circuits requires a new technology based on compatible to each other beam methods of local processing of materials. Ionic-beam processing that is used now for creation of active, isolating and resistive areas in GaAs, ionic milling, sedimentation, local etching, and ionic lithography satisfies these requirements to the greatest degree. The unity of the physical and chemical nature, locality, and possibility of electro-physical and chemical influences of ionic-beam processing on materials basically provides carrying out of all basic technological operations and their integration. Owing to these reasons, the achievement of high technology level in microwave integrated circuits is connected with introduction of ionic-beam processing methods.
Technological process of manufacturing integrated circuits by ionic-beam processing includes following stages:
1) transfer of the pattern of microwave integrated circuit on a plate by means of ionic lithography method;
2) introduction of impurity in a plate by means of a method of selective ionic introduction;
3) formation of metal contacts, formation of routing pattern for integration circuit by ionic-plasma evaporation;
4) formation of isolating layers by implantation of protons;
5) removal of semi-conductor, metal, and isolating materials by a method of ionic etching.
Ionic-beam lithography in microwave technology is the least studied and hardware provided.
Growing practical interest to ionic-beam lithograph is caused by a number of advantages in a process of ions energy transfer to substance as compared to processes of absorption of electronic or photon radiations.
Advantages of ionic bunch result from their features: low sensitivity to external electromagnetic fields, smaller dispersion caused by a high weight and a high localization of the absorbed energy in the field of interaction.